End Notes

  1. Holling (1973)
  2. Bierman et al. (2014)
  3. Huang et al. (2017)
  4. Balch et al. (2016)
  5. Gledhill et al. (2015)
  6. New Hampshire Coastal Risk and Hazards
    Commission (2016)
  7. PREP (2012)
  8. Latimer and Rego (2010)
  9. Burkholder et al. (2007)
  10. Guillotreau et al. (2017)
  11. NHDES (2017a)
  12. Kemp et al. (2004)
  13. Nettleton et al. (2011)
  14. Flanagan et al. (2017)
  15. Kenworthy et al. (2017)
  16. Unsworth et al. (2015)
  17. Unsworth et al. (2015)
  18. Kenworthy et al. (2017)
  19. Mallin et al. (2000)
  20. PREP (2017)
  21. NOAA/EPA (1988), Jones et al. (1992), and Jones (2000)
    Note: of the three above studies, only the 2000 study incorporated atmospheric deposition into estimates of total nitrogen load. Atmospheric deposition from the 2000 study was combines with nitrogen load estimates from 1988 and 1992 studies to obtain earlier estimates of total nitrogen load.
  22. NHDES (2014)
  23. Roseen et al (2015)
  24. PREP (2012)
  25. Jones (2000)
  26. NH State Climate Office (2014)
  27. Hayhoe et al. (2007)
  28. US EPA (2012)
  29. Bricker et al. (2003)
  30. US EPA (2012)
  31. Bricker et al. (2003)
  32. NHDES (2017b)
  33. Mathieson and Dawes (2017)
  34. Thomsen et al. (2001)
  35. Hauxwell et al. (2001)
  36. Burdick et al. (2017)
  37. US EPA (2012)
  38. Bierman et al. (2014)
  39. Pennock (2005)
  40. NHDES (2017b)
  41. Orth et al. (2006)
  42. Unsworth et al. (2015)
  43. Kenworthy et al. (2013)
  44. PREP (2010)
  45. Smith et al. (2017)
  46. Ao et al. (2017)
  47. NRDC (2014)
  48. NEIWPCC (2007)
  49. Sunderland et al. (2012)
  50. PREP (2009)
  51. LeBlanc et al. (2011)
  52. Ewart and Ford (1993)
  53. Carballal et al. (2015)
  54. NHFG (2017)
  55. TNC (2009)
  56. Grout (2017)
  57. Dionne (2017)
  58. Zankel et al. (2006)
  59. Walker et al. (2010)
  60. Grizzle and Ward (2016)
  61. Eckert (2016)
  62. New Hampshire Estuaries Project (2000)
  63. NOAA (2013)
  64. US Census Bureau (2015)
  65. NH Employment Security (2016)
  66. Johnson et al. (2016)
  67. Aisch et al. (2014)
  68. NH Public Radio (2017)
  69. NHDES Alteration of Terrain Bureau (2017)
  70. Southeast Watershed Alliance et al. (2012)
  71. University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center and Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc. (2015)
  72. Allen (2011)
  73. Peschel (2011)
  74. McMillen et al. (2016)
  75. Merriam Webster (2017)
  76. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2017)


Aisch G, Gebeloff R, Quealy K. 2014. New York Times: The Upshot – Where we Came From and Where we Went State by State.

Allen D. 2011. Portsmouth NH Stormwater Utility Feasibility Study: Final Report. A Final Report to The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. <https://www.des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/water/stormwater/documents/portsmouth-swu-final-report.pdf>

Ao Y, Goblick GN, Calci KR, Nash WC. 2017. Hydrographic Study of Peirce Island Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in the Piscataqua River of Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Report of Findings from the December 10 – 14, 2012 Study Period. PREP Publications. 372.

Balch W, Huntington T, Aiken G, Drapeau D, Bowler B, Lubelczyk L, Butler K. 2016. Toward a quantitative and empirical dissolved organic carbon budget for the Gulf of Maine, a semienclosed shelf sea. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 30: 268–292. doi:10.1002/ 2015GB005332

Bierman VJ, Diaz RJ, Kenworthy WJ, Reckhow KH. 2014. Joint Report of Peer Review Panel for Numeric Nutrient Criteria for Great Bay Estuary.

Bricker SB, Ferreira JG, and Simas T. 2003. An integrated methodology for assessment of estuarine trophic status. Ecological Modelling 169 (2003): 39 – 60.

Burdick DM, Mathieson AC, Nick S, McGovern M, Peter CR. 2017. Monitoring Macroalgae in the Great Bay Estuary for 2016. Final Report. The Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership: 15 pp.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2017. Yearly earnings: indexed by Independent Sector in April 2017. “The Value of Volunteer Time.”

Burkholder JM, Tomasko DA, Touchette BW. 2007. Seagrasses and eutrophication. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 350 (2007): 46–72.

Carballal MJ, Barber BJ, Iglesias D, Villalba A. 2015. neoplastic diseases of marine bivalves. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 131 (2015) 83-106.

Dionne M. NH Fish & Game, Personal Communication, May 2017.

Eckert, R.L. 2016. OYSTER (Crassostrea virginica) Recruitment Studies in the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire. PREP Publications. 371.

Ewart, J.W. and S.E. Ford. 1993. History and Impact of MSX and Dermo Diseases on Oyster Stocks in the Northeast Region. Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center. Fact Sheet No. 200.

Flanagan SE, Patrick DA, Leonard DJ, Stacey P. 2017. Buffer Options for the Bay: Exploring the Trends, the Science, and the Options of Buffer Management in the Great Bay Watershed: Key Findings from Available Literature. PREP Publications. 380.

Gledhill DK, White MM, Salisbury J, Thomas H, Mlsna I, Liebman M, Mook B, Grear J, Candelmo AC, Chambers RC, Gobler CJ, Hunt CW, King AL, Price NN, Signorini SR, Stancioff E, Stymiest C, Wahle RA, Waller JD, Rebuck ND, Wang ZA, Capson TL, Morrison JR, Cooley SR, Doney SC. 2015. Ocean and Coastal Acidification off New England and Nova Scotia. Oceanography 28(2): 182–197.

Grizzle, R.E. and K. Ward. 2016. Assessment of recent eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reef restoration projects in the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire: Planning for the future. PREP Publications 353.

Grout D, NH Fish & Game, Personal Communication, July 2017.

Guillotreau P, Allison EH, Bundy A, Cooley SR, Defeo O, Le Bihan V, Pardo S, Perry R, Santopietro G, Seki T. 2017. A comparative appraisal of the resilience of marine social-ecological systems to mass mortalities of bivalves. Ecology and Society 22(1): 46.

Hauxwell J, Cebrian J, Furlong C, Valiela I. 2001. Macroalgal Canopies Contribute to Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Decline in Temperate Estuarine Ecosystems. Ecology 82(4): 1007-1022.

Hayhoe K, Wake CP, Huntington TG, Luo L, Schwartz MD, Sheffield J, Wood E, Anderson B, Bradbury J, DeGaetano A, Troy TJ, Wolfe D. 2007. Past and future changes in climate and hydrological indicators in the US Northeast. Climate Dynamics 28: 381–407.

Holling, C.S. 1973. Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 4: 1–23.

Huang H, Winter JM, Osterberg EC, Horton RM, Beckage B. 2017. Total and Extreme Precipitation Changes Over the Northeastern United States. Journal of Hydrometeorology 18(6): 1783–1798.

Johnson KM, Scala DJ, Smith AE. 2016. Carsey Research National Issue Brief #96: First in the Nation, NH’s Changing Electorate.

Jones SJ, Short FT, Webster M. 1992. Pollution. in “The Ecology of the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire and Maine: An Estuarine profile and bibliography.” ed., Short FT. NOAA Coastal Ocean Publication.

Jones, SJ. 2000. A Technical Characterization of Estuarine and Coastal New Hampshire. A report for the NH Estuaries Project. PREP Publications. 294.

Kemp WM, Batiuk R, Bartleson, R, Bergstrom P, Carter V, Gallegos CL, Hunley W, Karrh L, Koch EW, Landwehr JM, Moore KA, Murray L, Naylor M, Rybicki NB, Stevenson JC, Wilcox DJ. 2004. Habitat Requirements for Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Chesapeake Bay: Water Quality, Light Regime, and Physical-Chemical Factors. Estuaries 27(3): 363-377.

Kenworthy WJ, Gallegos CL, Costello C, Field D, di Carlo G. 2013. Dependence of eelgrass (Zostera marina) light requirements on sediment organic matter in Massachusetts coastal bays: Implications for remediation and restoration. Marine Pollution Bulletin 83: 446-457.

Kenworthy WJ, Gobler CJ, Moore KA. 2017. Statement Regarding Eelgrass Stressors in the Great Bay Estuary. An appendix to the 2017 PREP Final Environmental Data Report.

Latimer J.S. and S.A. Rego. 2010. Empirical Relationship Between Eelgrass Extent and Predicted Watershed-derived Nitrogen Loading for Shallow New England Estuaries. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 90: 231-240.

LeBlanc LA, Krahforst C, Aube J, Roach S, Brun G, Harding G, Hennigar P, Page D, Jones SH, Shaw S, Stahlnecker J, Schwartz J, Taylor D, Thorpe B, Wells P. 2009. Eighteenth Year of the Gulf of Maine Environmental Monitoring Program. PREP Publications. 385.

Mallin MA, Williams KE, Esham EC, Lowe RP. 2000. Effect of Human Development on Bacteriological Water Quality in Coastal Watersheds. Ecological Applications 10: 1047-1056.

Mathieson, A.C. and C.J. Dawes. 2017. Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA. 806.

McMillen H, Campbell LK, Svendsen, ES, Reynolds R. 2016. Recognizing Stewardship Practices as Indicators of Social Resilience: In Living Memorials and in a Community Garden. Sustainability 8(8): 775.

Merriam Webster. 2017. Stewardship: definition. 

NEIWPCC. 2007. Northeast Regional Mercury TMDL.

Nettleton JC, Neefus CD, Mathieson AC, Harris LG. 2011. Tracking environmental trends in the Great Bay Estuarine System through comparisons of historical and present-day green and red algal community structure and nutrient content. PREP Publications. 374.

New Hampshire Coastal Risk and Hazards Commission. 2016. Preparing New Hampshire for Projected Storm Surge, Sea-Level Rise, and Extreme Precipitation: Final Report and Recommendations. PREP Publications. 387.

New Hampshire Estuaries Project. 2000. State of New Hampshire’s Estuaries. PREP Publications. 263.

New Hampshire Public Radio. 2017. In Tight N.H. Housing Market, Millennials & Empty Nesters Vie For Same Small Crop Of Homes. June 5, 2017. The Exchange.

NH DES Alteration of Terrain Bureau. 2017. Stormwater and antidegradation. State and Federal Permitting Programs.

NH DES. 2014. Great Bay Nitrogen Non-Point Source Study. NH Department of Environmental Services.

NH DES. 2017a. Technical Support Document for the Great Bay Estuary Aquatic Life Use Support Assessments, 2016 305(b) Report/303(d) List.

NH DES. 2017b. Technical Support Document for the Great Bay Estuary Aquatic Life Use Support Assessments, 2016 305(b) Report/303(d) List.

NH Employment Security. 2016. New Hampshire Economic Conditions: Migrations Ins & Outs.

NHF&G. 2017. Diadromous Fish Investigations: Anadromous Alosid Restoration and Evaluation. New Hampshire Fish and Game.

NH State Climate Office. 2014. State-Averaged Total Annual Precipitation for New Hampshire 1895-2013. Climate at a Glance – New Hampshire.

NOAA. 2013. National Coastal Population Report: Population trends from 1970 to 2020. NOAA State of the Coast Report Series, partnership with the US Census Bureau.

NOAA/EPA. 1988. Strategic Assessment of Near Coastal Waters: Northeast Case Study. Susceptibility and status of Northeast Estuaries to Nutrient Discharges. PREP Publications 375.

NRDC. 2014. Testing the Waters: A Guide to Water Quality at Vacation Beaches – Executive Summary. Natural Resources Defense Council.

Orth RJ, Carruthers TJB, Dennison WC, Duarte CM, Fourqurean JW, Heck KL, Hughes AR, Kendrick GA, Kenworthy WJ, Olyarnik S, Short FT, Waycott M, Williams SL. 2006. A Global Crisis for Seagrass Ecosystems. BioScience 56:987–996.

Pennock, J. 2005. 2004 Lamprey River Dissolved Oxygen Study: A final report to the NH Estuaries Project. University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH.

Peschel D. 2011. Dover New Hampshire Stormwater Utility Feasibility Study: Final Report. A Final Report to The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services.

PREP. 2009. State of Our Estuaries 2009. PREP Publications. 260.

PREP. 2010. Piscataqua Region Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan, Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership: D.B.Truslow Associates, Mettee Planning Consultants, 2010, Durham, NH. <http://scholars.unh.edu/prep/22/>

PREP. 2012. Final Environmental Data Report December 2012: Technical Support Document for the 2013 State of Our Estuaries Report. 265.

PREP. 2017. Final Environmental Data Report December 2017: Technical Support Document for the 2018 State of Our Estuaries Report.

Roseen, R., Watts, A., Bourdeau, R., Stacey, P., Sinnott, C., Walker, T., Thompson, D., Roberts, E., and Miller, S. 2015. Water Integration for Squamscott Exeter (WISE), Preliminary Integrated Plan, Final Technical Report. Portsmouth, NH, Geosyntec Consultants, University of New Hampshire, Rockingham Planning Commission, Great Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Consensus Building Institute.

Smith SM, Tyrrell M, Medeiros K, Bayley H, Fox S, Adams M, Mejia C, Dijkstra A, Janson S, Tanis M. 2017. Hypsometry of Cape Cod Salt Marshes (Massachusetts, U.S.A.) and Predictions of Marsh Vegetation Responses to Sea-level Rise. Journal of Coastal Research 33(3): 537-547.

Southeast Watershed Alliance, the University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center, and the Rockingham Planning Commission. 2012. Model Stormwater Standards for Coastal Watershed Communities.

Sunderland EM, Amirbahman A, Burgess NM, Dalziel J, Harding G, Jones SH, Kamai EH, Karagas MR, Shi X, Chen CY. 2012. Mercury Sources and Fate in the Gulf of Maine. Environmental Research 119: 27 – 41.

Thomsen MS, Wernberg T, Engelen AH, Tuya F, Vanderklift MA, Holmer M, McGlathery KJ, Arenas F, Kotta J, Silliman BR. 2012. A Meta-Analysis of Seaweed Impacts on Seagrasses: Generalities and Knowledge Gaps. PLoS ONE 7(1): e28595. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028595

TNC. 2009. Assessment of Road Crossings for Improving Migratory Fish Passage in the Winnicut River Watershed. The Nature Conservancy.

UNH Stormwater Center and Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc. 2015. Minimizing Environmental Impacts Through Stormwater Ordinance and Site Plan Regulation.

Unsworth RKF, Collier CJ, Waycott M, Cullen-Unsworth LC. 2015. A framework for the resilience of seagrass ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin 100.

US Census Bureau. 2015. American FactFinder: Community Facts.

US EPA. 2012. National Coastal Condition Report IV.

Walker S, Smith T, Schumacher P, Czapiga J, Sowers D, Oman-Saltmarsh J, Dest P. 2010. The Land Conservation Plan for Maine’s Piscataqua Region Watersheds. Published by the Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership, Durham, NH.

Zankel M, Copeland C, Ingraham P, Robinson J, Sinnott C, Sundquist D, Walker T, Alford J. 2006. The Land Conservation Plan for New Hampshire’s Coastal Watershed. PREP Publications. 174.